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Papiamento (English: /ˌpɑːpiəˈmɛnt/)[3] or Papiamentu (English: /ˌpɑːpiəˈmɛnt/; Dutch: Papiaments) is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch Caribbean. It is the most widely spoken language on the Caribbean ABC islands (Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao), with official status in Aruba and Curaçao. Papiamento is also a recognised language in the Dutch public bodies of Bonaire, Sint-Eustatius and Saba.[2]

Native toAruba, Curaçao, Caribbean Netherlands: Bonaire
Native speakers
Language family
Portuguese-based creole languages
  • Afro-Portuguese
    • Upper Guinea Creole
      • Papiamento
Writing system
Latin (Papiamento orthography)
Official status
Official language in
Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-2pap
ISO 639-3pap
Location map of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao, where Papiamento is spoken

The language, spelled Papiamento in Aruba and Papiamentu in Bonaire and Curaçao, is largely based on colonial-era Portuguese and Spanish (including Judaeo-Portuguese), and has been influenced considerably by Dutch and Venezuelan Spanish. Due to lexical similarities between Spanish and Portuguese, it is difficult to pinpoint the exact origin of some words. Though there are different theories about its origins, most linguists now believe that Papiamento emerged from the Spanish and Portuguese creole languages that developed in the West African coasts,[4] as it has many similarities with Cape Verdean Creole and Guinea-Bissau Creole.[5][6]


Burial site and monument to Doctor Moises Frumencio da Costa Gomez, the first prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles, with a message inscribed in Papiamento: No hasi ku otro loke bo no ke pa otro hasi ku bo, roughly meaning: Do not do unto others what you do not want others do unto you
Burial site and monument to Doctor Moises Frumencio da Costa Gomez, the first prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles, with a message inscribed in Papiamento: No hasi ku otro loke bo no ke pa otro hasi ku bo, roughly meaning: "Do not do unto others what you do not want others do unto you"
Catecismo Corticu – the first printed book in Papiamento in 1837
Catecismo Corticu – the first printed book in Papiamento in 1837

There are various theories about the origin and development of the Papiamento language, and precise history has not been established. Its parent language is surely Iberian, but scholars disputed whether Papiamento was derived from Portuguese and its derived Portuguese-based creole languages or from Spanish. Historical constraints, core vocabulary, and grammatical features that Papiamento shares with Cape Verdean Creole and Guinea-Bissau Creole are far less than those shared with Spanish, even though the Spanish and Dutch influences occurred later, from the 17th century onwards. Jacoba Bouschoute made a study of the many Dutch influences in Papiamento.[7][example needed][further explanation needed]

The name of the language itself originates from papia, from Portuguese and Cape Verdean Creole papear ("to chat, say, speak, talk"), added by the noun-forming suffix -mento.

Spain claimed dominion over the islands in the 15th century but made little use of them. Portuguese merchants had been trading extensively in the West Indies and with the Iberian Union between Portugal and Spain during 1580–1640 period, their trade extended to the Spanish West Indies. In 1634, the Dutch West India Company (WIC) took possession of the islands, deporting most of the small remaining Arawak and Spanish population to the continent (mostly to the Venezuelan west coast and the Venezuelan plains, as well as all the way east to the Venezuela Orinoco basin and Trinidad), and turned them into the hub of the Dutch slave trade between Africa and the Caribbean.

The first evidence of widespread use of Papiamento in Aruba and Curaçao can be seen in official documents in the early 18th century. In the 19th century, most materials in the islands were written in Papiamento including Roman Catholic school books and hymnals. In 1837, the Catecismo Corticu pa uso di catolicanan di Curaçao was printed, the first printed book in Papiamento. In 2009 the Catecismo Corticu was added to the UNESCO Memory of the World register.[8] The first Papiamento newspaper was published in 1871 and was called Civilisadó (The Civilizer).

Local development theory

One local development theory proposes that Papiamento developed in the Caribbean from an original Portuguese-African pidgin, with later Dutch and Spanish (and even some Arawak) influences.

Another theory is that Papiamento first evolved from the use in the region since 1499 of 'lenguas' and the first repopulation of the ABC Islands by the Spanish by the Cédula real decreed in November 1525 in which Juan Martinez de Ampués, factor of Española, had been granted the right to repopulate the depopulated Islas inútiles of Oroba, Islas de los Gigantes, and Buon Aire.

The evolution of Papiamento continued under the Dutch colonisation under the influence of 16th-century Dutch, Portuguese (Brazilian) and Native American languages (Arawak and Taíno), with the second repopulation of the ABC islands with immigrants who arrived from the ex-Dutch Brazilian colonies.

The Judaeo-Portuguese population of the ABC islands increased substantially after 1654, when the Portuguese recovered the Dutch-held territories in Northeast Brazil, causing most Portuguese-speaking Jews and their Portuguese-speaking Dutch allies and Dutch-speaking Portuguese Brazilian allies in those lands to flee from religious persecution. The precise role of Sephardic Jews in the early development is unclear, but Jews certainly played a prominent role in the later development of Papiamento. Many early residents of Curaçao were Sephardic Jews from Portugal, Spain, Cape Verde or Portuguese Brazil. Also, after the Eighty Years' War, a group of Sephardic Jews immigrated from Amsterdam. Therefore, it can be assumed that Judaeo-Portuguese was brought to the island of Curaçao, where it gradually spread to other parts of the community. The Jewish community became the prime merchants and traders in the area and so business and everyday trading was conducted in Papiamento. While various nations owned the island, and official languages changed with ownership, Papiamento became the constant language of the residents.

When the Netherlands opened economic ties with Spanish colonies in what are now Venezuela and Colombia in the 18th century[9] students on Curaçao, Aruba, and Bonaire were taught predominantly in Spanish, and Spanish began to influence the creole language.[5] Since there was a continuous Latinisation process (Hoetink, 1987), even the elite Dutch-Protestant settlers eventually communicated better in Spanish than in Dutch, as a wealth of local Spanish-language publications in the 19th century testify.

European and African origin theory

According to the European and African origin theory the origins of Papiamento lie in the Afro-Portuguese creoles that arose in the 16th century in the west coast of Africa and in the Portuguese Cape Verde islands. From the 16th to the late 17th centuries, most of the slaves taken to the Caribbean came from Portuguese trading posts (feitorias, transl.factories) in those regions. Around those ports, several Portuguese-African pidgin and creole languages developed, such as Cape Verdean Creole, Guinea-Bissau Creole, Angolar, and Forro (from São Tomé).[10] The sister languages bear strong resemblance with Papiamento. According to this theory, Papiamento was derived from one or more of these older creoles or their predecessors, which were brought to the ABC islands by slaves and traders from Cape Verde and West Africa.

The similarity between Papiamento and the other Afro-Portuguese creoles can be seen in the same pronouns used, mi, bo, el, nos, bos(o), being Portuguese-based. Afro-Portuguese creoles often have a shift from "v" to "b" and from "o" to "u": bientu (transl.wind), instead of viento.[clarification needed] In creole and also in Spanish, v and v are pronounced the same. In creole, it is also written as a b. Just like in Portuguese a final o is typically pronounced as /u/.

Guene (the name comes from "Guinea") was a secret language that was used by slaves on the plantations of the landhouses of West Curaçao.[11] There were about a hundred Guene songs that were sung to make the work lighter.[12] However, because of the secret character of Guene, it never had much influence on Papiamento.

Linguistic and historical ties with Upper Guinea Portuguese Creole

Since the late 1990s, research has been done that shines light on the ties between Papiamento and Upper Guinea Portuguese Creole. Martinus (1996), Quint (2000)[13] and Jacobs (2008,[14] 2009a,[15] 2009b[16]) focus specifically on the linguistic and historical relationships with the Upper Guinea Portuguese Creole, as spoken on the Santiago island of Cape Verde and in Guinea-Bissau and Casamance.

In Bart Jacob's study The Upper Guinea Origins of Papiamento[15] he defends the hypothesis that Papiamento is a relexified offshoot of an early Upper Guinea Portuguese Creole variety that was transferred from Senegambia to Curaçao in the second half of the 17th century, when the Dutch controlled the island of Gorée, a slave trading stronghold off the coast of Senegal. The Creole was used for communication among slaves and between slaves and slave holders.

On Curaçao, this variety underwent internal changes as well as contact-induced changes at all levels of the grammar, but particularly in the lexicon, due to contact with Spanish and, to a lesser extent, Dutch. Despite the changes, the morphosyntactic framework of Papiamento is still remarkably close to that of the Upper Guinea Creoles of Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau. Parallels have also been identified between the development of Papiamento and Catholicism.)[17]

Present status

Papiamento is spoken in all aspects of society throughout Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire.

Papiamento has been an official language of Aruba since May 2003.[18] In the former Netherlands Antilles, Papiamento was made an official language on 7 March 2007.[19] After the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles, Papiamento's official status was confirmed in the newly formed Caribbean Netherlands.[20] Also, 150,000 Antillians (mostly from Curaçao) live in the Netherlands and speak their mother language, Papiamento, fluently. Some Papiamento is also spoken on Sint Maarten and the Paraguaná Peninsula of Venezuela.

Venezuelan Spanish and American English are constant influences today. Code-switching and lexical borrowing from Spanish, Dutch and English among native speakers is common. This is considered as a threat to the development of the language because of the loss of the authentic and Creole "feel" of Papiamento.

Many immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean choose to learn Papiamento because it is more practical in daily life on the islands. For Spanish-speakers, it is easier to learn than Dutch, because Papiamento uses many Spanish and Portuguese words.[21]

The first opera in Papiamento, adapted by Carel De Haseth [nl] from his novel Katibu di Shon, was performed at the Stadsschouwburg in Amsterdam on 1 July 2013, commemorating the 150th anniversary of the ending of slavery in the Dutch Caribbean.[22][23]

Old Papiamento texts

The Papiamento language originates from about 1650. The oldest Papiamento texts that have been preserved are written letters. In the following three letters you can see that words changed and the spelling then was more conform the Dutch spelling. Some words are no longer in use and replaced by others. But the basis of Papiamento did not change much.

Piter May letter 1775

The oldest letter dates from 1775.[24] It was sent by the Sephardic Jew Abraham Andrade to his mistress Sarah Vaz Parro, about a family meeting in the centre of Curaçao.

Old Papiamento Modern Papiamento English

Piter May the ora ky boso a biny. My a topa tio la, ku Sara meme. Nan taba biny Punta. My Dusie, bo pay a manda bo ruman Aronchy, ku Tony & Merca koge na kamina dy Piter May.
Es nigrita Antunyca & nan a ybel tras dy forty, & nan a manda sutel guatapana. Mas my no saby pa ky razon. Sy bo saby, manda gabla, ku my Dios pagabo.
Bida, manda gabla ku my, kico Bechy a biny busca na Punta & borbe bay asina presto.

Mi tabata na Pietermaai te ora ku boso a bini. Mi a topa tio aya, ku Sara meimei. Nan tabata bini na Punda. Mi dushi, bo pai a manda bo ruman Aronchy, ku Tony i Merka kohe na kaminda di Pietermaai.
E negrita Antunika... nan a hib'é tras di fòrti, i nan a manda sut'é na e watapana. Pero mi no sabi pa ki rason. Si bo sabi, manda palabra, ku mi Dios ta bai pagabo.
Mi Bida, manda palabra ku mi, kiko Becky a bini buska na Punda, i bolbe bai asina lihé.

I was in Pietermaai until the time you came. I met uncle there, and Sara halfway. They were coming to Punda. My sweetheart, your father sent your brother Aronchy, and Tony and Merka went on their way to Pietermaai.
That negress Antunika... they brought her behind the fort, sent to be whipped at the divi-divi tree. But I don't know for what reason. If you know, send me a message, and my God will reward you.
My Life, send me a word what Becky came looking for in Punda, and then return as quickly.

Boo Jantje letter 1783

The next letter dates from 1783 and was recently discovered in an English archive.[25] It was sent by Anna Charje in the name of her baby Jantje Boufet to her husband Dirk Schermer in Rotterdam. (The final sentence is standard Dutch.)

Boo Jantje letter from 1783
Boo Jantje letter from 1783
Old Papiamento Modern Papiamento English

Mi papa, bieda die mi Courasson, bieni prees toe seeka bo joego doesje. Mi mama ta warda boo, mie jora toer dieja pa mie papa. Coemda Mie groot mama pa mie, ie mie tante nan toer. Papa doesje, treese oen boenieta sonbreer pa boo Jantje.
Adjoos mie papa, bieda die mi Courasson. Djoos naa boo saloer, pa mie i pa mie mama. Mie groot mama ta manda koemenda boo moetje moetje. Mie ta bo joego Doeje toe na mortoo. Dit heeft uw Jantje geschreeven, nogmals adjoos, vart wel.

Mi papa, bida di mi kurason, bini lihé serka bo yu dushi. Mi mama ta warda bo, mi ta yora tur dia pa mi papa. Kumindá mi wela pa mi, i mi tantanan tur. Papa dushi, trese un bunita sombré pa bo Jantje.

Ayó mi papa, bida di mi kurason. Dios duna bo salú, pa mi i pa mi mama. Mi wela ta manda kumindá bo muchu muchu. Mi ta bo yu dushi te na morto.
Dit heeft uw Jantje geschreven, nogmaals adios, vaarwel.

My father, life of my heart, come quickly close to your sweet son. My mother awaits you, I cry all day for my father. Greet my grandmother for me, and all my aunts. Dear father, bring a nice hat for your Jantje.
Goodbye my father, life of my heart. May God give you health, from me and from my mother. Send my grandmother many many greetings. I am your sweet son until death.
This is written by your Jantje, once again adios, goodbye.

Quant Court testimony 1803

The third text dates from 1803.[26] It is a court testimony in which 26 Aruban farm workers sign a statement to support their boss Pieter Specht against false accusations by Quant.

Old Papiamento Modern Papiamento English

Noos ta firma por la berdad, y para serbir na teenpoe qui lo llega die moosteer. Qui des die teempoe koe Señor B.G. Quant ta poner, na serbisje die tera...
Ta maltrata noos comandeur Pieter Specht pa toer soorto die koos. Y seemper el dho Quant ta precura die entreponeel deen toer gobierno die comandeur.
Por ees motibo, noos ta esprimenta koe eel ta causa die toer disunion.

Nos ta firma pa e berdad y pa sirbi den e tempo aki lo yega di mester. Cu di e tempo e cu señor B.G. Quant ta pone, na servicio di e tera...
Ta maltrata nos commandeur Pieter Specht pa tur sorto di cos. Y semper el señor Quandt ta percura di entremete den tur gobierno di commandeur.
Pa e motibo, nos ta experencia cu el ta causa di tur desunion.

We sign for the truth and to serve the coming time if necessary. About our time with B.G. Quant we declare, we were employed in land cultivation...
He always mistreated our commander Pieter Specht for all sort of things. And always mister Quant interfered with all instructions of the commander.
For that reason, we declare that he caused all the discord.

Orthography and spelling

Papiamento is written using the Latin script.

Since the 1970s, two different orthographies have been developed and adopted. In 1976, Curaçao and Bonaire officially adopted the Römer-Maduro-Jonis version, a phonetic spelling. In 1977, Aruba approved a more etymology-based spelling, presented by the Comision di Ortografia (Orthography Commission), presided by Jossy Mansur.

Distribution and dialects

Papiamento has two main dialects, one in Aruba and one in Curaçao and Bonaire (Papiamentu), with lexical and intonational differences.[27] There are also minor differences between Curaçao and Bonaire.

Spoken Aruban Papiamento sounds much more like Spanish. The most apparent difference between the two dialects is given away in the name difference. Whereas Bonaire and Curaçao opted for a phonology-based spelling, Aruba uses an etymology-based spelling. Many words in Aruba end with "o" while the same word ends with "u" in Bonaire and Curaçao. And even in Curaçao, the use of the u-ending is still more pronounced among the Sephardic Jewish population. Similarly, the use of "k" in Bonaire and Curaçao replaces "c" in Aruba.

For example:

English Curaçao and
Aruba Portuguese Spanish
Stick Palu Palo Pau Palo
House Kas Cas Casa Casa
Knife Kuchú Cuchiu Faca Cuchillo


Vowels and diphthongs

Papiamento vowels are based on Ibero-Romance and Dutch vowels. Papiamento has the following nine vowels:[28]

IPACuraçao and
aa in kanaa in canawalk
ee in efektoe in efectoeffect
ɛè in balète in balletballet
ǝe in apele in appelapple
ii in chikíi in chikitosmall
oo in obrao in obrawork
ɔò in ònbeskòpo in onbeschoftimpolite
uu in kunukuu in cunucufarm
øù in brùgu in brugbridge

Papiamento has diphthongs, two vowels in a single syllable that form one sound. Papiamento diphthongs are based on Ibero-Romance and Dutch diphthongs. It has the following diphthongs:

ai̯ai in bailedance
au̯au in faunafauna
ei̯ei in eseithat
ɛi̯ei in preisprice
eu̯eu in leufar
ɔi̯oi in djòinjoin
oi̯oi in morkoitortoise
ɔu̯ou in aboudown
ʏi̯ui in dùimthumb

Stress and accent

Stress is very important in Papiamento. Many words have a very different meaning when a different stress is used:

There are general rules for the stress and accent but also a great many exceptions. When a word deviates from the rules, the stressed vowel is indicated by an acute accent ( ´ ), but it is often omitted in casual writing.

The main rules are:[29]


Poems in Papiamento, Leiden
Poems in Papiamento, Leiden


Most of the vocabulary is derived from Portuguese and its derived Portuguese-based creoles and (Early Modern) Spanish. The real origin is usually difficult to tell because the two Iberian languages are very similar, and adaptations were made in Papiamento. A list of 200 basic Papiamento words can be found in the standard Swadesh list, with etymological reference to the language of origin.[30] There is a remarkable similarity between words in Papiamento, Cape Verdean Creole, and Guinea-Bissau Creole, which all belong to the same language family of the Upper Guinea Creoles. Most of the words can be connected with their Portuguese origin.

Linguistic studies have shown that roughly 80% of the words in Papiamento's present vocabulary are of Iberian origin, 20% are of Dutch origin, and some of Native American or African origin. A study by Van Buurt and Joubert inventoried the words of Taíno and Caquetío Arawak origin, mostly words for plants and animals.[31] Arawak is an extinct language that was spoken by Indians throughout the Caribbean. The Arawak words were re-introduced in Papiamento by borrowing from the Spanish dialect of Venezuela[32]

Many words are of Iberian origin, and it is impossible to label them as either Portuguese or Spanish:

While the presence of word-final /u/ can easily be traced to Portuguese, the diphthongisation of some vowels is characteristic of Spanish. The use of /b/, rather than /v/, descends from its pronunciation in the dialects of northern Portugal as well as of Spanish. Also, a sound shift may have occurred in the direction of Spanish, whose influence on Papiamento came later than that of Portuguese: subrino ("nephew"): sobrinho in Portuguese, sobrino in Spanish. The pronunciation of o as /u/ is certainly Portuguese, but the use of n instead of nh (/ɲ/) in the ending -no is from Spanish.

Few Portuguese words come directly from Portuguese, but most come via the Portuguese-based creole; in the examples below, the Cape Verdean Creole equivalents are borboléta, katchor, prétu and fórsa.

Portuguese-origin words:

Spanish-origin words:

Dutch-origin words:

And some words come from:

English-origin words:

African-origin words:

Native American-origin words:

Literature and culture

Aruba and Bonaire's national anthems are in Papiamento, "Aruba Dushi Tera" and "Tera di Solo y suave biento" respectively. The newspaper Diario is also in the language.

The 2013 films Abo So (Aruba) and Sensei Redenshon (Curaçao) were the first feature films in Papiamento; the comedy Bon Bini Holland (Curaçao and Netherlands) also contains some Papiamento.[33]


The meaning of dushi explained in Caribbean style
The meaning of dushi explained in Caribbean style

Phrase and word samples


Lord's Prayer

The Lord's Prayer in a register of Papiamento used liturgically by the Roman Catholic Church, compared with Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch (Roman Catholic version) and King James English:[34]

Papiamento Spanish Portuguese Dutch English

Nos Tata,
ku ta na shelu,
bo Nòmber sea santifiká,
laga bo Reino bini na nos.
Bo boluntat sea hasi na tera komo na shelu.
Duna nos awe nos pan di kada dia
i pordoná nos nos debe,
meskos ku nos ta pordoná nos debedornan.
I no laga nos kai den tentashon,
ma libra nos di malu.

Padre nuestro,
que estás en el cielo.
Santificado sea tu nombre.
Venga tu reino.
Hágase tu voluntad en la tierra como en el cielo.
Danos hoy nuestro pan de cada día.
Perdona nuestras ofensas,
como también nosotros perdonamos a los que nos ofenden.
No nos dejes caer en tentación y líbranos del mal.

Pai nosso, que estais nos céus
Santificado seja o vosso nome. Venha a nós o vosso Reino;
seja feita a vossa vontade,
assim na terra como no céu.
O pão nosso de cada dia nos dai hoje.
Perdoai as nossas ofensas,
assim como perdoamos
a quem nos tem ofendido. E não nos deixeis cair
em tentação,
mas livrai-nos do mal.

Onze Vader, die in de hemel zijt,
uw naam worde geheiligd,
uw rijk kome,
uw wil geschiede
op aarde zoals in de hemel.
Geef ons heden ons dagelijks brood
en vergeef ons onze schulden,
zoals ook wij vergeven aan onze schuldenaren,
en breng ons niet in beproeving,
maar verlos ons van het kwade.

Our Father,
who art in Heaven,
hallowed be Thy name.
Thy kingdom come.
Thy will be done on Earth as it is in Heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread,
and forgive our trespasses,
as we forgive those who trespass against us.
And lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from the evil one.

Comparison of vocabularies

This section provides a comparison of the vocabularies of Papiamento, Portuguese, and the Portuguese creoles of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde. Spanish is shown for the contrast.

English Curaçao and
Aruba Portuguese Guinea-Bissau Cape Verdean Spanish
WelcomeBon biniBon biniBem-vindoBen-vinduBen-vinduBienvenido
Good morningBon diaBon diaBom diaBon diaBon diaBuenos días
Thank youDankiDankiObrigadoObrigaduObrigaduGracias
How are you?Kon ta bai?Con ta bay?Como vais?Kuma ku bu na bai?Mo ki bu sta?¿Cómo estás?
Very goodMashá bonMasha bonMuito bomMuitu bonMutu bonMuy bien
I am fineMi ta bonMi ta bonEu estou bemN sta bonN sta bonEstoy bien
I, I amMi, Mi taMi, Mi taEu, Eu souN, Ami iN, Mi eYo, Yo soy
Have a nice dayPasa un bon diaPasa un bon diaPassa um bom diaPasa un bon diaPasa un bon diaPasa un buen día
See you laterTe aweróTe aworoAté logoTe loguTe lóguHasta luego
Not yetAinda noAinda noAinda nãoInda nauInda kaAún no
I like CuraçaoMi gusta KòrsouMi gusta CorsouEu gosto de CuraçaoN gosta di CuraçaoN gosta di CuraçaoMe gusta Curazao

See also


  1. "Papiamentu". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019.
  2. Papiamento can be used in relations with the Dutch government.
    "Invoeringswet openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba" (in Dutch). Retrieved 1 January 2011.
  3. Wells, J. C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education Limited/Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
  4. Quint, Nicolas (8 September 2011). "From West Africa to the Antilles, Dynamic Portuguese Creoles". Sorosoro. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  5. Romero, Simon (5 July 2010). "Willemstad Journal: A Language Thrives in Its Caribbean Home". The New York Times.
  6. Lang, George (2000). Entwisted Tongues: Comparative Creole Literatures. Amsterdam: Rodopi. ISBN 90-420-0737-0.
  7. Bouscholte, Jacoba Elisabeth (1978). Certain Aspects of the Dutch Influence on Papiamentu (MA thesis). University of British Columbia. doi:10.14288/1.0094428. hdl:2429/21045.
  8. "First Catechism Written in Papiamentu Language". UNESCO. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  9. Dede pikiña ku su bisiña: Papiamentu-Nederlands en de onverwerkt verleden tijd. van Putte, Florimon., 1999. Zutphen: de Walburg Pers
  10. Baptista, Marlyse (2009). On the Development of Nominal and Verbal Morphology in Four Lusophone Creoles. Seminar presentation given 6 November 2009, University of Pittsburgh.
  11. Paul Brenneker – Curacaoensia (Augustinus 1961)
  12. Martinus, Efraim Frank (1996). A Kiss of the Slave: Papiamento and its West African Connections.
  13. Quint, Nicolas (2000). "Le Cap Verdien: Origines et Devenir d'une Langue Métisse," L’Harmattan, Paris.
  14. Jacobs 2008.
  15. Jacobs, Bart (2009a). "The Upper Guinea origins of Papiamentu: Linguistic and historical evidence". Diachronica. 26 (3): 319–379. doi:10.1075/dia.26.3.02jac via
  16. Jacobs, Bart (2009b) "The Origins of Old Portuguese Features in Papiamento." In: Faraclas, Nicholas; Severing, Ronald; Weijer, Christa; Echteld, Liesbeth (eds.). "Leeward voices: Fresh perspectives on Papiamento and the literatures and cultures of the ABC Islands", 11–38. FPI/UNA, Curaçao.
  17. Dewulf, Jeroen (2018). "From Papiamentu to Afro-Catholic Brotherhoods: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Iberian Elements in Curaçaoan Popular Culture," Studies in Latin American Popular Culture, Vol. 36 (2018): 69–94.
  18. Migge, Bettina; Léglise, Isabelle; Bartens, Angela (2010). Creoles in Education: An Appraisal of Current Programs and Projects. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. p. 268. ISBN 978-90-272-5258-6.
  19. "Papiaments officieel erkend". Universiteit Leiden (in Dutch). 13 March 2007. Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  20. Tijdelijke wet officiële talen BES (in Dutch) via Artikel 2: De officiële talen zijn het Engels, het Nederlands en het Papiamento. (English: Article 2: The official languages are English, Dutch and Papiamento)
  21. Sanchez, Tara (n.d.). "Papiamentu". Language Varieties. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  22. "First Opera in Papiamentu: Katibu di Shon". Repeating Islands. 8 July 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  23. Lobo, Jairo (2013). "Katibu di Shon is an Unmistakable Enrichment of Our Cultural Heritage". Caraïbisch uitzicht. Werkgroep Caraïbische letteren. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  24. Jones, Addam Amauri (n.d.), Identity via Papiamentu: From Marginalization to Language of Instruction, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.3774.7441 via
  25. Jacobs, Bart; van der Wal, Marijke (2015). The Discovery, Nature, and Implications of a Papiamentu Text Fragment from 1783 (Proof version) via ResearchGate. (final version published in Jacobs, Bart; van der Wal, Marijke J. (2015). "The Discovery, Nature, and Implications of a Papiamentu Text Fragment from 1783". Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages. 30 (1): 44–62. doi:10.1075/jpcl.30.1.02jac. hdl:1887/43140.)
  26. Nicolaas, Quito (2016), Papiamento: de emancipatie van een creoolse taal (Slide deck) (in Dutch) via
  27. Kook, Hetty; Narain, Goretti (1993). "Papiamento". In: Extra, Guus; Verhoeven, Ludo (eds.), "Community Languages in the Netherlands" (pp. 69–91). Swets & Zeitlinger, Amsterdam.
  28. Maurer, Philippe (1990). "Die Verschriftung des Papiamento". In "Zum Stand der Kodifizierung romanischer Kleinsprachen". Gunter Narr Verlag.
  29. Goilo, Enrique R. (2000). "Papiamento Textbook". De Wit Stores, Oranjestad.
  30. "Appendix:Papiamento Swadesh List". Wiktionary. 19 June 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  31. van Buurt & Joubert 1997.
  32. Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española (2010). "Diccionario de Americanismos". Lima
  33. "films in focus: abo so and red, white and black: a sports odyssey". Trinidad and Tobago Film Festival. 2013.
  34. Ortega Fernández, José G. (c. 2016). Ritual di selebrashonnan liturgiko pa e aña di miserikordia (PDF) (in Papiamento). Komishon Liturgiko Diosesano di Obispado di Willemstad.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)




На других языках

- [en] Papiamento

[es] Papiamento

El papiamento es una lengua hablada en las Antillas Neerlandesas: las islas de Curazao (papiamentu, papiamento), Bonaire (papiamen) y en Aruba (papiamento), todas forman parte del Reino de los Países Bajos.

[fr] Papiamento

Le papiamento, ou papiamentu, est une langue créole des Antilles néerlandaises. Il est parlé à Aruba, Bonaire et Curaçao avec des variantes locales. Il s'agit d'une langue tonale[1].

[it] Lingua papiamento

Il papiamento o papiamentu è una lingua creola parlata nelle isole caraibiche di Aruba, Curaçao e Bonaire.

[ru] Папьяменто

Папьяме́нто (papiamento или papiamentu) — креольский язык на иберо-романской основе, родной язык населения Арубы, Кюрасао и Бонайре. Число говорящих — около 329 тыс. человек.

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